Ancient Era Insurance (远古时代的保险)
EARLY RISK INSTRUMENTS
The earliest known instance of insurance dates back to the Babylonian period circa 2250 BC when the Babylonians developed a type of loan insurance for maritime business. Examples can be found in the Code of Hammurabi. 汉谟拉比法典 现存于罗浮宫 (中国商朝)
The first methods of transferring or distributing risk in a monetary economy were practiced by 中文 和 巴比伦 traders in the 3 和 2 千年 BC, respectively. Chinese merchants traveling treacherous river rapids would redistribute their wares across many vessels to limit the loss due to any single vessel's capsizing. The Babylonians developed a system that was recorded in the famous 汉穆拉比法典, c. 1750 BC, and practiced by early 地中海 帆船 商人. If a merchant received a loan to fund his shipment, he would pay the lender an additional sum in exchange for the lender's guarantee to cancel the loan should the shipment be stolen or lost at sea. England in the mid-18th-century Merchants and shipowners very largely insured their own ventures themselves, but the need for discounting facilities arose after 1750 with the growing volume of bills drawn against West Indian merchants. Thus some of the more important Liverpool merchants began to exercise the functions of banking
Insurance became more sophisticated in the 启蒙时代 欧洲, and specialized varieties developed. Some forms of insurance developed in 伦敦 in the early decades of the 17th century. For example, the will of the English colonist Robert Hayman mentioned two “policies of insurance” taken out with the diocesan Chancellor of London, Arthur Duck. Of the value of £100 each, one related to the safe arrival of Hayman's ship in 圭亚那 and the other was in regard to “one hundred pounds assured by the said Doctor Arthur Ducke on my life”.
Warren Buffett – (沃伦·巴菲特 BRK-A)
Do you know how Warren Buffett makes his fortune?
Warren Buffett has a $128 billion cash pile. (巴菲特的1,280亿美元现金储备)
Do you like free money? 免费的钱– 喜欢吗?
避风港医疗保健, a joint venture between Amazon, JPMorgan Chase, and Berkshire Hathaway, created its first offering in the form of health insurance plans for tens of thousands of employees.
Explain – how to collect insurance premium & use as free money
Why Obama #44 and Warren Buffett are suddenly best pals (奥巴马总统和巴菲特突然变成好友)
What is Obama Care & Why (奥巴马健保和为什么)
The reason (表面的原因)
USA – the only advanced country without Universal Health Care.
Medical Bills: The Leading Cause of Bankruptcy (昂贵的医疗费用是导致
Medical Bills: The Leading Cause of Bankruptcy in the United States. Debt is a huge problem in the United States. Whether it is from paying for school or buying a home, a large portion of American citizens owes some amount of money. Unfortunately, medical expenses are one of the reasons some people fall into debt.
Why is the USA healthcare cost is so expensive? Free Market? （为什么美国的医疗费用这么昂贵？ 资本主义价高者得？ ）
USA vs. Singapore Comparison (“新闻周刊”)
Singapore has World # 3 Hospital
The population of Nanjing & #3, Similar to Singapore
Similar Doctor Education System as China (与中国医生类似的教育体系)
A college degree, graduation from medical school, and residency ，那恭喜你， 必须 成为 a 医生 alone, with additional years of experience and specialty training to become an oncologist. Licensing is mandatory, and oncologists 应该 have certification if they have a subspecialty.
为了 成为 a doctor in Singapore, you require to have at least an MBSS or equivalent or certification from any school of 医药 that is recognized by the Ministry of Health to be considered as a doctor in Singapore. (Click for best Hospital in the World)
All Singaporeans and PRs get basic health insurance (健保双全计划 生活) which covers basic public hospital treatments.
Nobel Laureate? The secret?
Singaporean Complaint. – 4 hours wait for time新加坡人的投诉四小时的等候时间
新加坡有很高的医疗水平，如果是当地公民，收费很便宜。 所以等候时间就会比较长。 海底捞的张勇不知道是否为此而移民去了新加坡呢？
Dr. Chen。 Stanford University: Why being a doctor in America is better than UK
2017 – Jeffrey c. Hall; Michael Morris Rosbash; 布兰代斯大学 ;
Jeff Hall Rockefeller University to MSK
2018 James P. Allison (MD Anderson) & Tasuku Honjo (Shared 2018 Nobel Prize of Medicine)
The aftermath of ObamaCare… No more PPO insurance （一分价钱一分货）
With PPO insurance, you can go to any hospital like MSK， MD Anderson.